Newfoundland & Labrador Ladder Safety
This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.
Copyright © 2009: Queen’s Printer, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR REGULATION 70/09
Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 2009 under the Occupational Health and Safety Act
(O.C . 2009-233)
(Filed August 7, 2009 )
PART V GENERAL HEALTH AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
29. (1) Where work is being done at a distance greater than 2 metres from the edge of a roof that has a slope of less than 3/12, the employer shall implement control zones to alert workers upon entering within 2 metres of the edge without an appropriate means of fall protection.
(6) Crawl boards and ladders used for roof work shall be securely fastened over the ridge of the roof or be otherwise effectively anchored.
(7) An eavestrough shall not be used to support a crawl board or ladder on a roof.
Openings, pits and tanks
30. (1) Where a worker is employed around an open tank containing liquid or a harmful substance, the sides of the tanks shall be constructed to extend at least
91.44 centimetres above a working platform or standard guardrails shall be provided to prevent the worker from falling into the tank.
(2) A hole or pit in a floor, roof, walkway or work area accessible to a worker shall be securely covered and identified.
(2) Where a vehicle service pit is used so frequently that compliance with this section is impractical, the perimeter of the pit shall be delineated by high visibility, luminescent, skid-resistant paint instead of guardrails.
(3) A vehicle service pit shall have a fixed ladder at each end.
PART XI SCAFFOLDS, STAGES AND WORK PLATFORMS
Portable ladder standards
148. (1) Except as otherwise permitted by this Part, portable ladder design, construction and use shall meet the requirements of
(a) CSA Standard CAN3-Z11 "Portable Ladders";
(b) ANSI Standard A14.1-1990 "Safety Requirements for Portable Wood Ladders";
(c) ANSI Standard A14.2-1990 "Safety Requirements for Portable Metal Ladders"; or
(d) other standard acceptable to the minister.
(2) A manufactured portable ladder shall be
(a) marked for grade and use; and
(b) used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Job built ladders
149. Where a portable wooden ladder is constructed at the job site,
(a) the side rails
(i ) shall be of 38 millimetres by 89 millimetres nominal dimensions for lengths up to 5 metres, and 38 millimetres by 140 millimetres nominal dimensions for lengths from 5 metres to 7.3 metres, and
(ii) shall not be notched, dapped, tapered or spliced, and the distance between the inner faces of the side rails shall not be less than 38 centimetres or more than 50 centimetres;
(b) cleats shall be
(i ) 19 millimetres by 64 millimetres for ladder lengths up to 5 metres,
(ii) 19 millimetres by 89 millimetres for ladder lengths from 5 metres to 7.3 metres,
(iii) spaced at 30 centimetres centres, and
(iv) nailed directly onto the smaller surfaces of the side rails, using three 57 millimetres wire nails on each end of the 89 millimetre cleats, and two similar nails on each end of the 64 millimetre cleats;
(c) the spaces on the side rails between the cleats shall be filled with close fitting and well secured filler pieces that are the same thickness as the cleats; and
d) a double cleat ladder shall have 3 rails evenly spaced, and be 107 centimetres to 127 centimetres wide and have continuous cleats which extend the full width of the ladder.
150. A protective coating applied to a wooden ladder, other than a small amount for identification purposes, shall be transparent to allow defects to be discovered by inspection.
151. Portable ladders shall be inspected before use, and ladders with loose, broken or missing rungs, split side rails or other hazardous defects shall be removed from service.
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Inclination and support
152. Where a portable single or extension ladder is in use
(a) the ladder shall be placed so that the horizontal distance from the base to the vertical plane of support is approximately one-quarter of the ladder length between supports; and
(b) the lower ends of the ladder side rails shall rest on a firm and level base and the upper support of the side rails shall be rested on a bearing surface strong enough to safely withstand the applied load.
A ladder shall be of sufficient length to project approximately one metre above the level of the upper landing to which it provides access, except where there is limited clearance and the ladder is adequately secured. Restrictions on use
(1) Except as otherwise permitted by a manufacturer, a worker shall not work from either the top 2 rungs of a portable single or extension ladder or the top 2 steps of a stepladder.
(2) A ladder shall not be used as a scaffold component or as a horizontal walkway, ramp or work platform support except where the ladder is part of a premanufactured or engineered system.
(3) A worker shall maintain 3 points of contact when using a ladder.
(4) A worker may only work from a portable ladder without fall protection where
(a) the work is a light duty task of short duration at each location;
(b) the worker's centre of gravity is maintained between the ladder side rails; and
(c) the ladder is not positioned near an edge or floor opening that would significantly increase the potential fall distance.
155. (1) A fixed ladder shall comply with the requirements of ANSI Standard A14.3 - 2002 "American National Standard for Ladders - Fixed Safety Requirements" or other standard acceptable to the minister.
(2) All fixed ladders, where a potential fall is more than 7.32 metres in length, shall be
(a) provided with platforms at intervals not greater than 7.32 metres;
(b) provided with safety cages starting at 2.13 metres and a maximum of 2.44 metres from the base of the ladder; or
(c) provided with acceptable devices to prevent workers from falling.
(3) Fixed ladders shall be anchored at intervals of not more than 3.05 metres for the entire length of the ladder.
(4) A continuous clearance of at least 17.78 centimetres shall be provided at the back of rungs of fixed ladders.
(5) Ladder rungs shall be omitted above the landing and the side rails shall extend at least 1.07 metres above the landing.
(6) Where acceptable devices to prevent workers from falling are used, platforms shall be provided at intervals not greater than 45.72 metres where the continuous length of climb is greater than 45.72 metres and every 45.72 metres afterward. Special purpose ladders
156. A special purpose ladder, including a ship's ladder, escape ladder, individual rung ladder or a ladder visible to the audience in a theatre scenic unit or prop, shall be engineered or constructed to a standard acceptable to the minister.
159. Unless otherwise permitted by this Part, a scaffold shall be designed, erected and maintained in accordance with the requirements of
(a) ANSI Standard A10.8 -1988 "American National Standard for Construction and Demolition Operations - Scaffolding - Safety Requirements";
(b) ANSI Standard A14.7- 1991 "Safety Requirements for Mobile Ladder Stands and Mobile Ladder Stand Platforms";
Access to scaffolds
166. (1) Access to otherwise inaccessible working levels of a scaffold up to 9 metres above a floor or grade shall be provided by
(a) end frames providing a ladder-like structure having horizontal members uniformly spaced at approximately 30 centimetres on centre; or
(b) a vertical or portable ladder or stairway, attached to the scaffold.
(2) Access to otherwise inaccessible working levels of a scaffold over 9 metres above a floor or grade shall be provided by
(a) a stairway erected for the full height of the scaffold;
(b) a temporary passenger hoist approved for use under the Public Safety Act ;
(c) an attached vertical ladder, with rest platforms at least every 6.1 metres which are fully guarded except at the ladder location; or
(d) end frames with a ladder-like structure having horizontal members uniformly spaced at 30 centimetres on centre, and rest platforms at least every 6.10 metres which are fully guarded except at the ladder location.
A worker shall not climb the outside of scaffold frames between landings. Vertical ladders
167. (1) A vertical ladder providing access to working levels of a scaffold shall
(a) be adequately fastened to the scaffold;
(b) be configured so that its siderails extend approximately one metre above the uppermost working level; and
(c) have rungs spaced at 30 centimetres on centre and have a clear space of at least 15 centimetres behind each rung.
(2) A ladder attached to a scaffold shall be positioned so that its use will not cause the scaffold to become unstable.
Definitions -elevating work platforms
201. For the purpose of this section and sections 202 to 217
(qq) "aerial ladder" means a vehicle-mounted aerial device with a single or multiple-section ladder with or without a platform at the top;
A telescopic aerial device, aerial ladder, articulating aerial device, vertical tower, material-lifting aerial device or a combination of these, when vehicle-mounted, whether powered or manually operated, shall meet the requirements of CSA Standard CAN/ CSA -C225 "Vehicle-Mounted Aerial Devices" or other standard acceptable to the minister.
Fall protection - elevating work platform
207. (1) A person on an elevating work platform shall wear a personal fall arrest system secured to an anchorage point that is approved by the manufacturer or professional engineer.
(2) A worker on an aerial ladder shall be continuously protected by means of a personal fall arrest system as required by Part X or shall maintain 3 points of contact with the ladder at all times.
PART XVIII EXCAVATION, UNDERGROUND WORK AND ROCK CRUSHING
404. In this Part, "excavation" means a cut, cavity, trench or depression in the earth's surface resulting from rock or soil removal.
Excavation or access
407. (1) Where a worker is required to enter an excavation greater than 1.22 metres deep, a ladder shall be provided in the immediate area where the worker is employed, extending from the bottom of the excavation to at least 0.91 metres above the top of the excavation.
(2) Walkways entering excavations shall be
(a) not less than 50.80 centimetres wide;
(b) equipped with guardrails when over 1.22 metres above grade; and
(c) provided with cleats when the grade is over 1/6.
(3) A runway which is used by mobile equipment shall be equipped with curbs.
Access, egress and movement
458. (1) All workplaces shall have safe and appropriate means of access and egress.
A walkway shall not be less than 50.80 centimetres wide and shall be accessible by means of a fixed ladder or stairway.
PART XXIII DIVING AND OTHER MARINE OPERATIONS
Ladders and gang planks
463. (1) A dock, wharf or pier shall be provided with ladders regularly spaced at intervals not exceeding 30.5 metres about its perimeter and which extend from the deck to at least one metre below water level.
(2) A fixed or portable ladder, gangplank or other safe means shall be provided and used where necessary to board and leave floating equipment.
(3) Portable means of access shall be secured to prevent dislodgement.
(4) A gangplank shall be provided with a guardrail in accordance with section 28, and where practicable, equipped with intermediate rails.
(5) The surface of a gangplank shall be provided with a means to prevent slipping.
PART XXVI ELECTRICAL OPERATIONS
Low voltage electrical equipment - disconnection and lockout
484. (1) Low voltage electrical equipment shall be completely disconnected and locked out where required by Part IX before work is started on it.
(2) Where it is not practicable to completely disconnect low voltage electrical equipment, work shall be performed in accordance with an electrical safety program in accordance with a standard acceptable to the minister that
(d) prohibits the use of metal ladders, wooden ladders with wire reinforced side rails, metal scaffolds or metal work platforms;
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