Ontario Ladder Safety
This material has been extracted from the Acts and Regulations of the Province to help students understand the subject. It is not an official source of information and must not be used for any other purpose.
All material on this page is acknowledged as © Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2010.
R.R.O. 1990, REGULATION 851
(FOR CONSTRUCTION SEE BELOW)
18. (1) Subject to subsection (2), an access ladder fixed in position shall,
(a) be vertical;
(b) have rest platforms at not more than nine metre intervals;
(c) be offset at each rest platform;
(d) where the ladder extends over five metres, above grade, floor or landing, have a safety cage commencing not more than 2.2 metres above grade and continuing at least ninety centimetres above the top landing with openings to permit access by a worker to rest platforms or to the top landing;
(e) have side rails that extend ninety centimetres above the landing; and
(f) have rungs which are at least fifteen centimetres from the wall and spaced at regular intervals.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to an access ladder on a tower, water tank, chimney or similar structure which has a safety device which will provide protection should a worker using the ladder fall. R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 851, s. 18.
19. Where frequent access is required to equipment elevated above or located below floor level, permanent platforms shall be provided with access by a fixed,
(a) stair; or
(b) access ladder. R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 851, s. 19.
20. Barriers, warning signs or other safeguards for the protection of all workers in an area shall be used where vehicle or pedestrian traffic may endanger the safety of any worker. R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 851, s. 20.
Maintenance and Repairs
73. A portable ladder shall,
(a) be free from broken or loose members or other faults;
(b) have non-slip feet;
(c) be placed on a firm footing;
(d) where it,
(i) exceeds six metres in length and is not securely fastened, or
(ii) is likely to be endangered by traffic, be held in place by one or more workers while being used; and
(e) when not securely fastened, be inclined so that the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is not less than 1/4 and not more than 1/3 of the length of the ladder. R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 851, s. 73.
ONTARIO REGULATION 213/91
ACCESS TO AND EGRESS FROM WORK AREAS
70. (1) Access to and egress from a work area located above or below ground level shall be by stairs, runway, ramp or ladder. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 70 (1).
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a work area that is a suspended scaffold able to be moved to give access to a floor, roof or platform or to ground level.
O. Reg. 213/91, s. 70 (2).
Stairs and Landings
(2) As the construction of a building or structure progresses, permanent or temporary stairs shall be installed up to,
(a) the uppermost work level; or
(b) if stairs would interfere with work on the uppermost work level, to within the lesser of two storeys or nine metres below the uppermost work level. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 75 (2).
(3) Subsection (2) does not apply with respect to,
(a) a part of a building or structure in which only the structural steel beams or columns are erected; or
(b) a structure to which a permanent ladder is attached before the structure is raised into position. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 75 (3).
78. (1) A ladder shall be designed, constructed and maintained so as not to endanger a worker and shall be capable of withstanding all loads to which it may be subjected. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 78 (1).
(2) A ladder,
(a) shall be free from defective or loose rungs;
(b) shall have rungs spaced at 300 millimetres on centres;
(c) shall have side rails at least 300 millimetres apart;
(d) shall be placed on a firm footing; and
(e) shall be situated so that its base is not less than one-quarter, and not more than one-third, of the length of the ladder from a point directly below the top of the ladder and at the same level as the base of the ladder, if the ladder is not securely fastened. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 78 (2).
(3) The maximum length of a ladder measured along its side rail shall not be more than,
(a) five metres for a trestle ladder or for each of the base and extension sections of an extension trestle ladder;
(b) six metres for a step-ladder;
(c) nine metres for a single ladder or an individual section of a ladder;
(d) fifteen metres for an extension ladder with two sections; and
(e) twenty metres for an extension ladder with more than two sections. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 78 (3).
(4) No ladder shall be lashed to another ladder to increase its length. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 78 (4).
(5) In this section,
"extension trestle ladder" means a combination of a trestle ladder and a vertically-adjustable single ladder with a suitable means of securely locking the ladders together. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 78 (5).
No ladder shall be present in an elevator shaft or a similar hoisting area when the shaft or area is being used for hoisting. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 79.
A ladder used as a regular means of access between levels of a structure,
(a) shall extend at the upper level at least 900 millimetres above the landing or floor;
(b) shall have a clear space of at least 150 millimetres behind every rung;
(c) shall be located so that an adequate landing surface that is clear of obstructions is available at the top and bottom of the ladder; and
(d) shall be secured at the top and bottom to prevent movement. O. Reg. 213/91,
81. (1) A wooden ladder,
(a) shall be made of wood that is straight-grained and free of loose knots, sharp edges, splinters and shakes; and
(b) shall not be painted or coated with an opaque material. O. Reg. 213/91,
s. 81 (1).
(2) The side rails of a wooden ladder of the cleat type,
(a) shall be not less than 400 millimetres and not more than 610 millimetres apart; and
(b) shall measure not less than,
(i) thirty-eight millimetres by eighty-nine millimetres if the ladder is 5.8 metres or less long, or
(ii) thirty-eight millimetres by 140 millimetres if the ladder is more than 5.8 metres long. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 81 (2).
(3) The rungs of a wooden ladder of the cleat type,
(a) shall measure not less than,
(i) nineteen millimetres by sixty-four millimetres if the side rails are 400 millimetres apart, or
(ii) nineteen millimetres by eighty-nine millimetres if the side rails are more than 400 millimetres and not more than 610 millimetres apart; and
(b) shall be braced by filler blocks that are nineteen millimetres thick and are located between the rungs. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 81 (3).
82. A double-width wooden ladder,
(a) shall have three evenly-spaced rails that measure at least thirty-eight millimetres by 140 millimetres;
(b) shall have rungs that,
(i) measure at least thirty-eight millimetres by eighty-nine millimetres,
(ii) extend the full width of the ladder, and
(iii) are braced by filler blocks that are at least 19 millimetres thick; and
(c) shall not be less than 1.5 metres wide and not more than two metres wide.
O. Reg. 213/91, s. 82.
83. (1) When a step-ladder is being used as a self-supporting unit, its legs shall be fully-spread and its spreader shall be locked. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 83 (1).
(2) No worker shall stand on the top of or the pail shelf of a step-ladder. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 83 (2).
84. (1) Subject to subsection (2), an access ladder fixed in position,
(a) shall be vertical;
(b) shall have rest platforms at not more than nine metre intervals;
(c) shall be offset at each rest platform;
(d) where the ladder extends over three metres above grade, floor or landing, shall have a safety cage commencing not more than 2.2 metres above grade, floor or landing and continuing at least 90 centimetres above the top landing with openings to permit access by a worker to rest platforms or to the top landing;
(e) shall have side rails that extend 90 centimetres above the landing; and
(f) shall have rungs that are at least 15 centimetres from the wall and spaced at regular intervals. O. Reg. 631/94, s. 2.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to an access ladder on a tower, water tank, chimney or similar structure that has a safety device that will provide protection should a worker using the ladder fall. O. Reg. 631/94, s. 2.
85., 86. Revoked: O. Reg. 145/00, s. 24.
115. No barrel, box or other loose object shall be used as a work place or as a support for a ladder, scaffold or work platform. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 115.
Tools, ladders, scaffolding and other equipment or materials capable of conducting electricity shall not be stored or used so close to energized electrical equipment, installations or conductors that they can make electrical contact.
O. Reg. 627/05, s. 7.
If a support system is used for the walls of an excavation, a ladder for access to or egress from the excavation shall be placed within the area protected by the support system. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 240.
285. Every shaft shall have a means of access and egress by stairway, ladder or ladderway for its full depth during its construction and when it is completed.
O. Reg. 213/91, s. 285.
286. (1) A stairway, ladder or ladderway for a shaft that is more than six metres deep,
(a) shall have landings or rest platforms spaced at intervals not greater than 4.5 metres;
(b) shall be off-set at each landing or rest platform; and
(c) shall be located in a sheathed compartment that is constructed in such way that a worker who falls while on the stairway, ladder or ladderway will land on the landing or rest platform below. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 286 (1).
(2) Every landing and rest platform shall be wide enough to permit at least two workers to pass on it safely. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 286 (2).
(3) Every opening and ladderway shall be wide enough to permit the passage of a worker wearing rescue equipment and shall be at least 750 cm by 750 cm.
O. Reg. 631/94, s. 12.
287. (1) Every conveyance located in a service shaft that is more than six metres deep shall be separated from a stairway, ladder or ladderway in the shaft by a lining described in subsection (3). O. Reg. 213/91, s. 287 (1).
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply with respect to a conveyance located in a service shaft if the hoisting area is so remote from the stairway, ladder or ladderway that it is not possible for a load, bucket or device being hoisted or lowered to come into contact with the stairway, ladder or ladderway. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 287 (2).
(3) A lining shall consist of solid planks at least fifty-one millimetres thick and spaced not more than ten millimetres apart. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 287 (3).
288. (1) This section applies with respect to a hoistway that is more than six metres deep in which hoisting is carried out by mechanical power. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 288 (1).
(3) Subsection (2) does not apply to a landing at the bottom of a hoistway if the landing has one or more red lights that,
(a) are located where a person approaching the hoistway from a tunnel or from the lower end of a stair or ladder can see at least one of them; and
(b) are controlled by a switch readily accessible to a shaft attendant. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 288 (3).
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